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SFA History Class 134 under Dr. Brophy
Hit List #3 (Chapters 24, 25, 26, &27)

Please note:  This page is not intended to take the place of the lecture and reading assignments but as a study aid.  This was prepared for my own personal use but feel free to print it out and use it if you want to.  I would appreciate hearing from you on updating any missing information or misinformation so I can update it.  If we all work together we might create a site for this class and instructor that we can use in the future.  I have not attempted to include every detail but a general idea to help with remembering the information.  E-mail me at  Tee .

1.  Teapot Done Scandal--    Sec. of Interior accepted bribes (kickbacks) to lease government property to private oil companies in Wyoming.  Albert Fall was first cabinet member to be sent to federal prison.

2.  Strikes of 1919 --  post W.W.I hysteria;  general strike in Seattle (garbage, water electricity etc..), Boston police, major steel strike and attacked by media as being Communist inspired because leader was a radical.

3.  Scopes Trial --    High school teacher arrested for teaching theory of evolution in which he'd volunteered as a test case.  William Jennings Bryan was on the prosecution side and Clarence Darrow for the defense.  Big media event.  Scopes convicted and later ruling was overturned due to a technicality.  Focus was on "trying" the law and not the case.

4.  Sacco - Vanzetti Trial -- two immigrant anarchists from Italy who were convicted and executed charged with murdering a guard and paymaster during a robbery in which it was never proven that they were even involved in the robbery.  Their main offense was political beliefs and nationality.

5.  Dillingham Commission -- 1907 report that investigated immigration and determined there was a "new immigration" which was made up of peoples from Southern and eastern Europe.

6.  National Origins Act -- Fixed immigration (cap) to 150,000 with each country receiving a (quota system) fraction of that 150,000 depending on how many people from that origin were already in the United States.  Didn't have anything to do with Canadians and Mexicans.  Discriminated in favor of Northern Europeans and against Southern Europeans.

7.  KKK of the 1920's -- most sinister reactionary movement, overreaction, revived membership and rites, their major goal was Native, white Protestant supremacy.  Targeted more than Afro Americans this time, also included bootleggers, wife beaters, etc.., and forced schools to adopt bible reading.

8.  Causes of the depression -- overproduction and under consumption, government economic policy of not intervening in business, federal reserve board did opposite what it should have done with changing rates.

9.  Hoover's philosophy -- believed in limited government, natural economic laws of supply and demand to regulate itself, and rugged individualism (suffer some and help yourself).

10.  Bonus Expeditionary Force -- veterans of W.W.I who marched on D.C. needing their bonuses, that they were promised in 1945, early.  Hoover called out the troops to remove the vets from the tent city -- horrible fights and FDR knew that this would get him elected president in the upcoming race.

11.  Brains Trust -- Roosevelt's group of advisors, who were specialists in their respective fields, and offered their input for solutions that would encompass the extremes.  The two extremes would get together and work out a compromise that the general public should be able to live with.  Came up with the Economics of Scarcity for the farmers.

12.  National Bank Holiday -- banks closed bu Roosevelt in order to determine their solvency, if solvent it reopened immediately with the government stamp of approval and if the bank was not solvent, they were assisted and led back into solvency if appropriate.  According to Brophy -- this action was taken without the authority to do so.

13.  First and Second New Deals -- First one was FLUB; emphasis on economic recovery of farms, labor , unemployment, and the banking system.  Second deals was for reform.

14.  Three R's of the new deal -- recovery, reform, and relief

15.  Black cabinet -- unique, first black brains trust and they were advisors for the African - American community made up of scientists and professors or professional people concerning domestic matters.

16.  Agricultural Allotment Act -- law establishing our basic agricultural policy.  government would pay farmers subsidies to reduce their output in order to restore their purchasing power (by creating economics of scarcity) from falling prices and overproduction.

17.  Parity and the Parity Years -- 1909 -- 1914 was good years for farmers,  the idea was to try to raise purchasing power back to the level that it was during this period.  The first year -- the farm season is well underway so crops were destroyed and payments were make to land owner.  The second year -- payments were sent to those who actually worked the land but the landowners would sometimes use pressure tactics to get these payments also.

18.  Works Projects Administration -- WPA, massive public works 1936 program for the jobless.  2nd new deal,  built highways, public buildings, parks, bridges, airports and allowed people to hone their existing skills such as artists, writers, and teachers.

19.  Public Works Administration -- PWA,  purpose was to prime the pump to spur recovery, built roads, sewage and water systems, warships, & aircraft; was the cornerstone of industrial recovery.

20.  National Recovery Administration -- Roosevelt's plan for public works which established the PWA, competing business met with representatives of workers and consumers to establish Section 7a of the NRA.

21.  Section 7a of the NRA -- granted workers the right to organize and bargain collectively.

22.  National Youth Administration -- 2nd new deal, sponsored work - relief programs for young adults and students in order to 1.  prepare them for self sufficiency through education and 2.  control unemployment statistics.  (Ex. was our present day work- study program).

23.  Civilian Conservation Corps -- young men between 18 - 25 put to work planting trees, clearing camp areas and beaches, building bridges, dams, fisheries and fire towers.

24.  Tennessee Valley Authority -- TVA, River valley was badly depressed, frequent seasonal floods and erosion, small rural communities;  idea was to build dams for 1.  flood and erosion control, 2.  hydroelectric power.  Government learned costs of providing electricity but became the largest polluter.

25.  Rural electrification Agency -- brought electricity to rural area by allowing people to set up co-ops

26.  National Labor Relations Act -- granted worker the right to organize and bargain collectively with management.  Also empowered board to penalize unfair labor practices.

27.  Fair Labor Standards Act -- first broad based national hour and minimum wage law 1938.

28.  Social Security Act -- established old age insurance for workers who paid the taxes.  Employers and employees paid for this benefit -- never intended to be a retirement plan-- also encompassed the disabled and temporary jobless.

29.  Schecter vs. U.S. -- sick chicken case;  Mr. Schecter is prevented from selling his sick birds across state lines by the NRA and group of his peers which set the regulations for consumer protection.  Supreme Court declares the NRA unconstitutional.

30.  Judicial Reorganization Bill -- requested the authority to add a federal judge whenever an incumbent failed to retire within 6 months of reaching age 70 and also provided pensions to retiring judges.  "Packing the court" portion of the bill didn't pass but did get the pension for retiring judges.

31.  Jones & Laughlin Cases -- (after the court packing attempt) court upheld that production of goods for interstate commerce could be regulated bu Congress

32.  Scottsboro Case -- black men who were riding trains --arrested and charged with raping some white women.  Later was proven the women were never touched but the men were sentenced to jail anyway.

33.  Huey Long & Doc Townsend -- demagogues who attacked the new deal.  Townsend devised old age pension plan of $200 per month but it had to be spent in the month in which it was received and not saved.  Long's theory was to seize the rich and redistribute wealth to all by guaranteeing $2000 per month in income, and a $5,000 homestead tax exemption.

34.  Senate Purge of 1938 --

35.  Executive Order #8802 -- established the Fair Employment Practices Committee in order to stop the march on Washington by African - Americans.  The order stated that the war industries couldn't discriminate on the basis of race.

36.  Bracero program -- Mexicans were admitted back into the United States on short term work contacts or "green cards".

37.  CIO vs AFL -- the CIO was a split off of AFL and they believed that you should organize the industry (such as steel, auto workers, etc..) and not just the job or craft.  CIO is successful.

38.  Sit Down Strike -- introduced by the CIO ad 1st used in auto industry;  Occupy the plant and sit there until your demands from the union are met.

39.  Women and the New Deal -- women were discriminated against, last hired and first fired;  Spouses couldn't both work for the civil service, some school wouldn't hire married women or women at all,  women also received lower pay.

40.  New Deal in Retrospect -- programs didn't end the depression but the war did, new agencies were discriminatory, and laid the foundation for the welfare system.  This period is considered a watershed in that it changed people's view of government and it's involvement in the economy.,

41.  Washington conference -- 1921 called by Harding in a effort to reduce naval armaments and came up with several treaties.  Created The Five Power Treaty which set tonnage limits on battleships, observe China's open door and no more Pacific fortifications.

42.  Geneva conference -- accomplished nothing, tried to apply a formula to the lesser warships like we did with the battleships.

43.  Kellogg - Briand Pact -- agree to outlaw war as an instrument of national policy (end offensive warfare).  Reflected sentiment that war was wasteful and barbaric.

44.  Independent Internationalism -- isolate from Europe's political squabbles and commitments like the League of Nations but enter into world affairs on our own terms.

45.  Collective security -- called for in League of Nations ; if one country goes to war all of the countries involved in the league would go to war also.

46.  Good neighbor policy - control more subtly in form of national guard, loans, and economically our neighbors to the south of us in Central and South Americas and the Caribbean. Several dictators arose out of the national guards.  This helped to solidify our relationships with our neighbors before we enter the war.

47.  U.S. & Latin American Dictators -- came from the U.S. funded national guard training in Latin American and the dictators who arose from this national guard.

48.  Dawes & Young Plans -- reduced Germany's annual reparation payments

49.  Japan's Actions (1930s) --invaded Manchuria (a portion of China) as a buffer against the Soviets and as a vital source of coal, iron, timber, and food.  This violated the Nine Power Treaty and the Kellogg - Briand Pact but the U.S. did not have the power to compel Japanese withdrawal.  We sent them the Stimson Doctrine (Act)

50.  Italy's Actions -- invades Ethiopia and the U.S. applies economic sanctions except for oil and petroleum products; soft response.

51.  Hitler's Actions -- dismantle the Peace of Paris 1919; reoccupies the Rhineland, reunites with Austria, demands Sudutenland from the French and British.

52.  Stimson Doctrine (Act) -- we told Japan that we what they did was wrong and that we would not recognize their conquest.  Later they invade China proper.  A moral lecture which declared that the U.S. would not recognize any impairment of China's sovereignty or of the open door policy.

53.  Nye Committee -- investigated origins of Americans entering W.W.I and the economic results; because of this investigation we passed the Neutrality acts.

54.  Neutrality Acts (1930s) -- American citizens can't sail on ships of belligerent nations, make loans to peoples or governments of the belligerent countries, and no trading; Belligerents were any countries who were involved in the war.  Associate "Merchants of Death" with this one.

55.  Destroyers for Bases Deal -- The British need destroyers and we would trade with them in exchange for military bases.  At this time we were in an undeclared was (on our part).  American destroyers would look out for German subs and then contact the British so they could destroy them.

56.  Cash - Carry Concept -- the U.S. would sell nonmilitary goods to any country needed items if they paid for them in cash up front and carried the gods away in their own ships without any risk to ourselves.  A Neutrality Act.

57.  Lend - Lease Program -- before we entered the war; Stated that we would lend / lease / sell war materials to any country that we deemed that their survival was linked to our own.

58.  Munich Conference -- France and Britain agreed to allow Hitler his conquest in Czechoslovakia of Sudeten region.

59.  Nazi - Soviet Pact  -- pact between Berlin and Moscow and launched attacks against Poland.  After this Britain and France declared war on Germany 2 days later.

60.  Holocaust -- 6 million Jews killed, (2/3 of Europe's Jews or 1/3 of Jews worldwide).  The Jews were not the only ones who were targeted for extinction, Gypsies, social and political deviants as well as the mentally disabled also.

61.  Atlantic charter --attempt to spell out the world that the Big 3 envisioned at the end of the war. Collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation and freedom of the seas.

62.  Casablanca Charter -- unconditional surrender, keep fighting until the surrender comes with the agreed upon terms.

63.  Teheran Conference -- first meeting between the Big 3, significant argument between Roosevelt and Stalin.  Try to decide when the 2nd front will start.

64.  Yalta Conference --  post W.W.II conference, U.S. makes concession to Soviets, in Asia the soviets can have southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, in Korea they can have N. Korea (N. of the 38th parallel) and also economic consideration in Manchuria.  The U.S.  will get promise that Soviets will invade Japan within a few months of Germany's surrender.  In Europe, concessions regarding Poland.

65.  Potsdam Conference -- Truman attends this one, shows up unsure and then learns of the bomb and gets emboldened.  Decisions are to divide Germany into 4 occupation zones between British, French, American and Soviets.  Berlin would also be divided with all having land access to their zones.  Soviets could take anything they saw fit from Germany (which still had appx. 1/3 equipment intact) as payment "in kind".

66.  San Francisco Conference --

67.  Second Front Issue -- key point of friction, cross channel invasion of France at Normandy.  Russians desperately wanted the 2nd front to come soon to relieve some pressure on their side of the front line. Churchill feared a premature invasion and wanted to use the Mediterranean forces and go through the back door.  Roosevelt wanted to keep the Soviets happy fearing it might leave Hitler free to invade Russia.  Churchill won

68.  D-Day and Overlord -- 6-6-44, largest amphibious landing in history,  Allied troops landed in Normandy under the command of Eisenhower and was the 2nd front.

69.  Manhattan Project -- the atomic bomb project that Roosevelt hid from Truman who became president after FDR died.

70.  Truman's A-bomb Decision -- 1.  save lives by bringing about a quicker end to the war and 2. ?

71.  Korematsu Case -- court case in which the court upheld the governments right to put Japanese into internment centers.  In the 1980's we apologized to the people and in the 90's we started paying recompensation to the survivors in the amount of $20,000 for their hardships and losses.

72.  Double V Campaign -- took place within the black community; raised questions about democracy at home for the African - American problems.

73.  Workers & the War -- 12 million people in the war so there was a shortage of workers,  many of the workers that had to be relied upon were women

74.  Women & the war -- had to take over what was once considered "men only" role in the workplace.  Proved that sexual stereotypes were incorrect.

Big 3 -- United States & Roosevelt, Great Britain and Churchill, Soviet Union & Stalin

Hit List 1      Hit List 2     Hit List 4      America's Longest War

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