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SFA History Class 134 under Dr. Brophy
Hit List #2 (Chapters 21, 22, 23)

Please note:  This page is not intended to take the place of the lecture and reading assignments but as a study aid.  This was prepared for my own personal use but feel free to print it out and use it if you want to.  I would appreciate hearing from you on updating any missing information or misinformation so I can update it.  If we all work together we might create a site for this class and instructor that we can use in the future.  I have not attempted to include every detail but a general idea to help with remembering the information.  E-mail me at  Tee .

1.  Foreign Policy Elite -- opinion leaders in politics, business, labor, agriculture, religion, journalism, education & military.  Small group whose opinion counts & influence the president, congress, the Senate & etc..  They believe US prosperity & security depend on exertion of influence abroad.

2.  New Manifest Destiny -- we would spread our social Darwinism idea of American superiority throughout the world; anglo - saxon superiority

3.  "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" -- 1890 book by A. T. Mahan that was widely read and basically stated that all the great countries and peoples of the past possessed a superior naval fleet.  This book influenced & contributed to our navy of iron clad vessels & showed we must have navy in order to pursue expansionism.

4.  "Our Country" -- written by Rev. Josiah Strong 1885; it characterized Americans as a special God favored Anglo - Saxon race destined to lead others.  Social Darwininsts said survival of the fittest applies also to nations.

5.  Justifications for Expansionism -- domino effect, social Darwinism & superiority belief, the raising of military standards, Panama Canal & 1 thing led to another.  Need for domestic expansionism also

6.  Turner Thesis -- historian that stated the significance about the official closing of the frontier and with it the first period of American history.  Inferred that Americans will demand new frontiers therefore we stated look outside the US to overseas & space.

7.  Wilson - Gorman Tariff & Cuba -- imposes a tariff on Cuban sugar 1894 which plunged their economy into crisis.  This was their #1 export.

8.  Reconcentration System -- troops sent into Cuban countryside to round up everyone to be placed into a concentration camp.  Created a free fire zone.  Bad conditions in camps

9.  DeLome Letter -- published in NY Journal and was a private letter stolen (mail) from the Spanish Ambassador & it scorned McKinley & revealed Spain's determination to fight on in Cuba

10.  USS Maine -- sent to Havana to demonstrate US concern & protect American citizens during the Cuban revolution with Spain.  This ship had an explosion on board which killed 266 of 354
american officers & crew.

11.  McKinley Ultimatum to Spain -- insisted Spain accept an armistice, end reconcentration & designate McKinley as arbiter, give Cuba its independence

12..  Teller Amendment - disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba but it didn't rule out US control believing the Cubans needed a period of American tutoring.

13.  Terms of Peace of Paris (1898) -- between the US and Spanish, terms included independence for Cuba, cession of Philippines, Puerto Rico, & Guam to the US.  American payment of $20M to Spain for the territories.

14.  Platt Amendment -- prohibited Cuba from making a treaty with another nation that might impair its independence.  Essentially, the US had the right to intervene & required Cuba to lease to us a naval base.

15.  Philippine Insurrection -- we obtain the Philippines thru the Peace of Paris & they didn't like us in their country.  Filipinos believed we were promising them their independence.  Atrocities committed by both sides, lots of deaths

16.  Open Door Policy -- principle of equal trade opportunity for all nations in their spheres

17.  First Open Door Notes -- sent to imperial nations asking them to respect principle of equal trade for all nations in their spheres.  Underlying purpose was to negate the idea of having spheres of influence in China.  End national discrimination

18.  Boxer Rebellion -- Chinese secret society seized the foreign diplomats in Beijing (Peking) and held them there.  The US sent in troops to lift the siege & free the diplomats

19.  Second Open Door Notes -- July, instructed other nations to preserve China's territorial integrity & to honor "equal & impartial trade".  Meaning that other nations couldn't carve up china and take their spheres as their own countries colonies.

20.  Gentlemen's Agreement -- between Roosevelt and Japan & states that we will not make a law out of a Japanese exclusion act & emperor says he will not let his people go to the US

21.  New Navy -- 1883 we required an efficient navy to protect our shipping & colonies for bases due to our expansionist views  Roosevelt

22.  Great Whit Fleet -- US Navy sent on a world wide tour in 1907 to deter the Japanese.  This impressed them & they started building a bigger navy.

23.  Taft - Katsura Agreement -- 1905, the US conceded Japanese hegemony (leadership) over Korea in return for Japan's pledge not to undermine Americas position in the Philippines.

24.  Big Stick Diplomacy -- Teddy Roosevelt & Great White Fleet, walk softly & carry a big stick, sends our new navy on a world cruise to impress & intimidate others; show of military power

25.  Dollar Diplomacy  -- the use of private funds to serve American diplomatic goals & @ same time to garner profits for American financiers; led to economic imperialism.

26.  Missionary Diplomacy -- Wilson, wanted to spread democracy throughout the world with the zeal of a missionary and is willing to use force if necessary; gunboat

27.  Clayton - Bulwer Treaty -- with Britain (1850) & provided for joint control of a Central American canal

28.  Hay - Pauncefote Treaty -- 1901, Pres. Roosevelt persuaded the British to relinquish previous treaty allowing us sole development of Panama Canal

29.  Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine -- warning from US to Latin America to stabilize their politics & finances or they might require intervention by a civilized nation meaning the US would assume the role of a police power.

30.  Great Rapprochement -- the warming of relations between Britain & the US creating friendships for further issues & uses.

31.  Typical Progressive -- middle class, live in city, college educated, 35 - 40 years old, a professional or business owner & Protestant in religion.

32.  Muckrakers - journalists who fled the public's taste for scandal & sensation by investigating & attacking social, economic & political wrongs

33.  Trust Issue -- evolution of progressive trust beliefs.  "banking industry & NY control of nat'l money"

34.  Northern Securities Co Case -- Roosevelt's antitrust policy broke up this Security co in 1904 which was a RR combination created by J. P. Morgan.  1st one dissolved by the court

35.  Hepburn Act -- 1906 & imposed stricter regulation of the railroads

36.  Meat Inspection Act -- passed after the expose of Upton Sinclair called The Jungle showing the unsanitary practices of the meat packing industry.  Made it a crime to sell or transport diseased animals

37.  Pure Food & Drug Act -- required the use of ingredient labels, also included beverages

38.  Coal Strike of 1902 -- United Mine Workers Union in Pa pursuing an 8 hr day & higher pay.  Owners refused to acknowledge union claims & Roosevelt got them to accept arbitration.  Workers got higher wages & reduced hours & required mgmt to deal w/ grievance committees elected by the miners but didn't require recognition of the union.

39.  Roosevelt & Conservation -- 1st president to set aside lands for future generations to use

40.  16th Amendment -- federal income tax to supplement the govt. income
      18th Amendment -- prohibition
      19th Amendment -- women's suffrage , vote in federal elections

41.  Ballinger - Pinchot Affair -- Ballinger removed 1M acres of forest & mineral land from the reserved list & Pinchot was fired when he protested a questionable sale of coal lands in Alaska.

42.  Payne - Aldrich Tariff -- restored many tariff cuts signed into law by Taft

43.  Election of 1912 -- Wilson (Dem.), Roosevelt (Progressive Rep), Taft (Rep & 25%), Debs (Socialist), people for candidates to the left of political center (majority were progressives)  Taft's nomination created a split of the Rep party & Progressives created.  The Progressives and Democrats are a majority in both houses.

44.  Underwood Tariff -- encouraged imports, reduced other tariffs, promoted free competition, cut govt. funding but replaced by 16th income tax

45.  Federal Trade Commission Act -- investigates corporations & issue cease & desist orders against unfair trade practices.  A further step in consumer protection by regulation and signals the end to trust busting.

46.  Federal Reserve Act -- established the nation's first central banking system with 12 new district banks created to hold the reserves of member banks across the nation.

47.  Clayton Anti - Trust Act -- outlawed monopolistic practices such as price discrimination & interlocking directorates (mgmt of 2 or more competing co.'s by the same executives).

48.  Keating Owens Child Labor Act -- 1st federal child labor law but later gets declared unconstitutional.  An attempt to end exploitation but only involved companies involved in interstate commerce.

49.  Rule of Reason -- thoughts of typical progressive & attempts to trust bust who later discover that not all big business were bad.  Starting to look at the company's contribution to society.

50.  Election of 1916 -- Wilson wins platform slogan "He kept us out of war" however we enter W.W.I 1 month after he takes office.  Roosevelt embarrasses the Rep party

51.  Franco -Prussian War -- 1870 between France & Germany.  beginning or reasons for W.W.I; Germany wins and each country tries to isolate the other using allies

52.  War of the Dreadnoughts -- arms race between the Entente & Alliance.  Started out naval & turned into general.  Prior to W.W.I

53.  Triple Alliance -- Germany, Austria / Hungary, & Italy.  Italy drops out & doesn't fight on German side but latter joins the Big 4 @ the peace conference

54.  Triple Entente -- France, Britain & Russia

55.  Cruiser rules -- advance warning of attack on merchant and / or cruise ships so the people could get off before sunk & then picked up the survivors.  U-boats couldn't abide by this rule

56.  Strict Accountability -- the US declaration to Germany, after their violation of the cruiser rules, warning them (G) of consequences if harm Americans under the cruiser rules

57.  Gore - McLemore Resolution -- prohibit American from sailing on ships of countries who were in W.W.I.  Wilson opposed law & killed it saying we should be able to do where & when we wished.

58.  Zimmerman Note -- from Germans to Mexican govt., asking them to enter the war on Germany's side if the US enter the war in exchange for getting their lost land back from the US

59.  Economic Factors & the War -- submarine warfare, zimmerman note, we had loaned $B to French & British so we had an economic stake.  If your side lost -- you didn't get paid.

60. Lusitania -- passenger ship that was sunk by a U-boat & resulted in loss of American lives.  The British had placed munitions on this ship using civilians as a shield

61.  Schieffen Plan -- go around France's defenses & go thru Belgium.  1st time civilians actively engage in warfare, and Germany trying to knock out 1 front of a two front war

62.  First Battle of the Marne -- outskirts of Paris where the Germans are stopped & have a stalemate & trench warfare, Paris is saved

63.  Battle of Jutland -- 1916 naval battle off coast of Denmark which defeats Germany's surface navy.  Leaves Germany no choice but to use subs

64.  Wilsonianism -- belief that if a democracy existed worldwide it would end all wars; battle between good & evil

65.  Wilson's War Decision -- we needed a seat @ peace conference when war ended, Germans issued the Sussex pledge stating anything in water around British Isles would be sunk, economic stake with Britain & spread of Democracy

66.  Espionage & Sedition Acts -- made it a federal crime to speak against the war and / or criticize the war policies and members of the govt.

67.  Abrams & Schenck Cases -- court uphold the espionage & sedition act laws; each case deals with only 1 of the laws.  analogy -- free speech doesn't give you the right to yell fire in a theater (Justice Holmes)

68.  Food & Fuel Administrations -- agencies to help coordinate the civilian war efforts by civilian sacrifices of food & fuel conservation to give to our troops during W.W.I

69.  War Industries Board -- had broad powers & head was the 2nd most powerful person.  Purpose was to centrally mobilize industry with the war effort.

70.  Committee on Public Info -- propaganda designed to mobilize American minds.  Stories printed to show Germans in an unfavorable light & sadistic

71.  Big 3 & Big 4 -- US, Britain & France, the 4 included Italy.  representative at peace conference neither Germany nor Russia were allowed @ conference

72.  Fourteen points -- Wilson issues peace w/ out victory & not to the victor go the spoils; open treaties arrived @ openly & no secrets; freedom of seas in war & peace; reduction of arms; rights of minorities to self determination meaning nat's boundaries & govt.; formation of a League of Nations with representatives from all countries in order to solve conflicts.

73.  Peace Of Paris 1919 -- peace conference @ end of W.W.I where Big 3 & 4 met.  Wilson wanted 14 points but others turned it down.  Germany accepted an unconditional surrender & conference was to redraw political map.   Germany looses all colonies which are put under other countries authority & not independence.

74.  Article 10 -- provided for collective security which is an entangling alliance.


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