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SFA History Class 134 under Dr. Brophy
Hit List #1 (Chapters 16, 17, 18, 20)

Please note:  This page is not intended to take the place of the lecture and reading assignments but as a study aid.  This was prepared for my own personal use but feel free to print it out and use it if you want to.  I would appreciate hearing from you on updating any missing information or misinformation so I can update it.  If we all work together we might create a site for this class and instructor that we can use in the future.  I have not attempted to include every detail but a general idea to help with remembering the information.  E-mail me at  Tee .

1.  Special Field Order #15 -- Sherman set aside land for the newly freed slaves and told them it "would be theirs after they had improved it".  Only attempt to give land to former slaves

2.  13th Amendment -- abolished slavery 1865

3.  14th Amendment -- 1868  1- declared the Confederate war debt null and void, 2- extended rights of citizenship and vote to black men, and 3- no state shall deny life, liberty and property

4.  15th Amendment -- 1870 forbid states to deny the right to vote based on race, color, or previous servitude (states could restrict suffrage) and start of women's movement

5.  Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan -- 1863 a state govt. could be established as soon as 10% of those who had voted in 1860 took an oath of future loyalty to the Union.  High ranking Confederates were exempted and some blacks qualifies.

6.  Wade Davis Bill -- required 50% of voters to take oath that they never voluntarily supported the rebellion.

7.  First Reconstruction Act of 1867 -- return to military authority in South until new govt. could be set up.  5 districts headed by a Union general

8.  Tenure of Office Act -- gave Senate power to interfere with changes in president's cabinet.

9.  Force Acts of 1870 & 1871 -- made acts by individuals against the civil and political rights of others a federal offense, and 2- election supervisors and martial law -- suspension of Habeous Corpus to combat KKK killings and activities.

10.  Civil Rights Acts of 1874 & 1875 -- prohibited segregation in public facilities '' separate but equal"

11.  Consequences of the Civil War -- most costly in terms of human life, end of slavery, suspension of habeous corpus, increased to power of the govt.

12.  Freedom vs Slavery's End -- blacks achieved legal equality by emancipation but it only resulted in the slave codes being rewritten replacing "slaves" with the works "freedmen, colors & etc. ".

13.  Radical Republicans -- wanted to transform the south and were a minority within the Republican party.  They wanted democracy, establish public education and ensure rights of freedmen.  Also wanted to treat the south like a conquered nation

14.  Black Codes -- former slaves were to carry passes, observe a curfew, live in landowner housing, restrictive labor contracts, kept them on plantations etc....

15.  Ku Klux Klan -- a night riding group set up to intimidate people & evolved into a terrorist organization.  They wanted to frustrate reconstruction & freedmen in subjection.  Purpose was political, racist and lawless.

16.  Why Reconstruction Failed -- fiscal problems, Republican mistakes, racial hostility and terror.  Mostly due to social and economic failures.

17.  Exodusters -- African - Americans who migrated to Kansas and were grieving over the betrayal of their hopes for equality and the end of reconstruction.

18.  Why an Age of Segregation -- social "Darwinism" we stereotyped blacks, minorities and etc...

19.  US vs Reese -- 15th amendment didn't guarantee a citizen's right to vote but only listed grounds for denying suffrage.  States could deny the right to vote by other means, i.e.., literacy tests, poll taxes, political clubs sand etc...

20.  US vs Cruikshank -- La., whites were convicted for attacking a black meeting and conspiring to deprive them of their rights.  2 types of citizenship - state and national.  National means you can travel between the states

21.  Slaughter House Cases -- a La slaughter house had been granted a monopoly by legislature (state), other houses sued, Supreme court upheld ruling stating the ones who sued had not been deprived of their rights.

22.  Civil Rights Cases of 1883 -- 14th amendment upheld  states couldn't discriminate but private individuals could.

23.  Plessy vs Ferguson -- upholds doctrine of "separate but equal" in 1896

24.  Cummins vs Board of Education -- 1899 court applied doctrine of "separate but equal" to schools.

25.  Social Darwinism -- survival of the fittest, power would flow naturally to the most capable.

26.  Timber and Stone Act -- 1878 allowed citizens to buy timber land inexpensively in which lumber companies took advantage ($2.50/acre).  law benefited the timber and mining companies

27.  Census of 1890 -- announced the closing of the frontier

28.  Ranching and the railroad -- cattle raised near RR routes to eliminate sinewy and tough meat from the cattle drives.  Efficient way for farmers to get goods to market.  Trains would go east with meat and come back with people

29.  Great Cowboy Strike of 1888 -- strike was for pay of at least $1 per day and took place in Tx

30.  Homestead Act -- 1862 set up to encourage western settlement, people had to live on land for 5 yrs and make improvements, then they would be given a title or could buy for $1.25/acre if wanted sooner

31.  Crop-Lein System -- farmer would pledge part of his crop as a means to pay off a debt.  Usually the price was raise before interest added vs a cash transaction

32.  Furnishing Merchant -- person who could exchange supplies (seeds, food, etc.) and put a lien on the farmer's crops

33.  Tenant Farming -- had no land but they did have farm implements; would work the land and provide the landowner a share of the harvest

34.  National Grange -- social and educational organization set up to try to improve standards of living especially in the south.  Later moved into economic and political action.

35.  Granger Laws -- maximum rate laws targeting RR and owners of warehouse facilities.  State regulated laws

36.  Munn Case -- uphold state regulation of RR rates (Grange law case )

37.  Wabash Case -- declared that only Congress can limit interstate commerce rates (Grange law case)

38.  Interstate Commerce Act -- creates commission to regulate rates and practices of interstate shippers.  Outlawed pools.  1st federal regulation law and was a compromise.

39.  Farmer Alliances -- rallied against crop liens, merchants, and RR's in particular and against money power.  Pushed the Grange concept of cooperation and wanted to improve on the lack of cash -- lack of credit problem

40.  Omaha Platform -- 1892  3rd party; wanted govt. ownership of public facilities (R, telegraph, phone), free and unlimited coinage of silver, sub treasury plan, direct election of state senators

41.  Silver Issue -- wanted by farmers because of the inflation associated with silver backed currency

42.  Sub treasury Plan -- called for federal govt. to construct warehouses in every major agricultural county while awaiting higher prices and govt. would loan farmers treasury notes to pay debts & make purchases

43.  Election of 1896 -- pivotal; industrial / financial or agricultural.  McKinley (Rep) elected & path chosen was industrial

44.  Reservation Policy --

45.  Dawes Act of 1887 -- dissolved tribal lands and grants land allotments to individual families & awarded citizenship (after a 25 yr. period)

46.  Indian Reorganization Act -- 1930's  restores tribal ownership of lands, provisions designed to preserve & restore their culture

47.  Termination Policy  -- the liquidation of Indian reservations and an end to federal services

48.  Relocation Program

49.  Pools & Trusts -- competing companies agree on how much to produce & what to charge (pools and were informal) worked in good times but not in bad   Trusts-- responsible individuals would manage affairs of another (horizontal integration) 1st created by Rockafella & Standard Oil

50.  Economies of scale -- beneficial to the large companies; large co's get cuts on rates like shipping and other expenses that the small business can't get the same deal

51.  Vertical Integration -- allowed co's to control all aspects of their operations, including raw materials, production, and distribution

52.  Iron Law of Wages -- dictates that employees be paid according to conditions of supply & demand. i.e.. no raises, wage cuts

53.  Scientific Management -- identify elementary operations of motion, select better tools and devise a series of motions which will increase efficiency of the task.  Time and motion studies

54.  Yellow Dog Contracts -- employers would have employees sign a contract stating that they would not join a union or create one against their employer

55.  Blacklists -- list of union members and / or activists which was circulated among employers

56.  Lockouts -- employer would close and lock the plant, hire Pinkerton detectives to help keep workers out, was to try to prevent workers from forming a union

57.  Cease & Desist Injunctions -- a court order to remove a company's name from a boycott list and stop protests and pickets.

58.  National Labor Union -- founded 1866, 1st national labor union made up of many crafts and smaller unions.  lasted till 1873

59.  Knights of Labor -- only broad based union to survive the depression made up of women, minorities, unskilled and semiskilled workers. Led by Terence Powderly

60.  American Federation of Labor -- 1886 led by Samuel Gomphers, accepted industrialism and worked to achieve better working conditions.  Comprised of skilled workers

61.  Pullman Strike -- pullman had created a co town and tried to cut wages while leaving other prices alone, workers went on strike and plant was closed.

62.  Homestead Strike -- between iron and steel workers, unions get smashed

63.  Haymarket Affair -- 5/1/1886, largest strike in Chicago @ McCormick reaper factory, police killed 2 unionist and wounded others, bomb exploded killing 7 and injuring 67.  Mass arrests followed, drew public attention to labor problems

64.  Bradwell vs Illinois -- Myra Bradwell had been denied the right to practice law because of her gender in which the Supreme court rejected her claim on the basis of marriage

65.  Minor's Theory -- rights of woment, interpretation of constitution

66.  Anthony Amendment -- can't deny right to vote on the basis of sex

67.  Muller vs Oregon -- upheld a state law limiting women to 10 hr/day to work because their health and reproductive functions required protection in order to preserve the strength and vigor of the human race

68.  Lochner vs New Your -- 1905 the court t struck down a law limiting bakery workers to a 60 hr week and a 10 he day.  Court ruled that baking was not a dangerous enough occupation to justify restricting the rights of workers to sell their labor freely.

69.  Menlo Park -- Edison's invention factory, mainly for uses of electricity.

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